Government of India Government of India

Singapore

International Training Program on ‘Capacity Building in the field of Urban Planning and Governance’ at Singapore

The International MoU between Town and Country Planning Organisation (TCPO), Govt. of India and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise (SCE), Govt. of Singapore for capacity building in the field of Urban Planning and Governance was signed during the visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India to Singapore in November 2015. The MOU mandates for training to 100 Central and State Government officials in four batches of twenty-five officials each at Singapore over a period of two years.

In pursuance of the above MoU, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Govt. of Singapore has appointed Centre for Liveable Cities (CLC) to execute the program. Accordingly, four batches of training program comprising of the Central & State Govt. officers have been organized i.e. 1st batch during 12th – 16th September 2016, 2nd batch during 28th November to 02nd December 2016, 3rd batch during 24th - 28th April 2017 and 4th and final batch during 14th - 18th August 2017. In total 99 officers i.e. 37 participants from Central Govt. and 62 participants from State Govts. have participated in the Training Program. Out of the total 99 participants, 21 were Administrators (IAS & IPS), 56 were Town Planners and 22 were JS, US, DS, Director, Engineer etc.

The International Training Program has acclaimed huge success and received enormous appreciations from the host Country as well as from the participants of India. The entire series of International Training Program could be accomplished timely only because of immense support from the Hon’ble Prime Minister, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and the team of TCPO.

The contents of the training program were both intensive and exhaustive which focused on the urban challenges faced in India. The course was extensively designed by the officers of TCPO and SCE/CLC, through mutual discussions and interactions at various levels. As intended in the MOU, the subjects covered under the scope of ‘Urban Planning and Governance’ for one week training program were - Urban Governance and Integrated Master Planning, Urban Design and Conservation, Financing City, Land Sales & Management, Transport Planning, Use of GIS in Landuse and transport Planning, Housing, Urban Greening, Water, Development Controls, Industrial Infrastructure in Singapore. The lectures were highly educative and given by extremely educated key professionals working in Singapore.

The programme was facilitated by CLC Fellows, Experts, and Resource Persons. The facilitators used in the programme were chosen on the basis of their seniority, role in enabling Singapore’s urban development, experience in executing urban solutions based off the Singapore experience in other city contexts and their expertise in key areas pertaining to urban development at large. They are former and current senior civil servants who have held prominent positions in Singapore’s Government agencies and have played a significant role in enabling Singapore’s ‘Urban Transformation’.

These lecture series were followed by site visits/ learning journeys. During the stay in Singapore, the participants visited Singapore City Gallery, River Front, Bishan Amk Park, HDB-Toa Payoh, Solid Waste Management Plant, Water Treatment Plant and Gardens by the Bays. Often, these visits were accompanied the engineers, social workers, citizens’ who have actually worked on ground and helped in making Singapore – A City. These learning journeys are the key aspect of the training program and provided a window to experience the wonderful city of Singapore to all the participants.

Another key feature of the training program was ‘Action Plan Discussion’. The discussion series were specifically integrated in the course for involvement of each participant and addressing at least one urban problem each. During these sessions, each participant highlighted the key urban issue that he/she was facing in their work domain and in consultation with the Singapore faculties had to formulate an ‘Action Plan’ for the same. These action plans were discussed in groups. Later, each group made a presentation to all on the last day, which was also an outcome of training program.

The International training program was also an opportunity for the Singapore firms to interact with the Indian delegation and introduce their expertise, knowledge and technology. The meeting with Singaporean experts/ companies was suitably convened during the formal Net-working lunch session. At the end of program each participant was awarded with the training certificates. The Valedictory sessions were conducted in the presence of High Commission, Govt. of India, Director General, MFA, Govt.of Singapore, Executive Director and other Sr. Fellows, Experts & Members of CLC.

Overall, the training programme was a success with participants reacting positively to the content and speakers in the programme. Close communication with CLC and the speakers for the various sessions ensured that participants were able to get technical insights into urban matters, but more importantly, an insight into the integrated, systematic approach to urban planning and governance in Singapore. Participants also appreciated being guided by urban experts who had borne witness to and had been involved in effecting ‘Singapore’s Transformation’ in both indoor lectures and outdoor learning journeys. They especially appreciated the multi-sectoral approach taken while dealing planning issues.

The MoU has been implemented timely and would always be referred as a benchmark in building Indo-Singapore ties. The entire TCPO team and all the participants are grateful to Hon’able Prime Minister for his vision to conduct International Training Program in the field of Urban Planning and Governance at Singapore. The experience and benefits of this training program are long lasting. It was a wonderful opportunity for the entire TCPO team to work together with CLC and SCE to enhance the capacity building of 100 Central/ State Govt. officers working in various capacities.

Learning Experience from Singapore Training Program on “Urban Planning and Governance” at Singapore

S.N.

Topics Covered Sharing of Singapore Experience  Lessons Learnt from Singapore Development Strategies / Way Forward
1 CLC Liveability Framework and Urban Governance 

By Mr Michael Koh
Fellow 
Centre for Liveable Cities

Singapore’s Urban Transformation journey and contribution of urban planning for a liveable city .
Role of Governance in a complex and dynamic adaptivesystem 
Importance of visionary leadership in Urban Development
Singapore’s experience in transformation from Port city to Industrial City to Business hub.
Understanding of CLC Liveability framework based on Dynamic Urban Governance and Supported
by Integrated Master Planning which results high quality of life, sustainable environment and competitive economy.
CLC Livability framework is very practical and need of the hour for sustaining urban environment, economy and quality of life. The desired outcomes can never be achieved until there is visionary leadership/ political will, public support and technical expertise.
Formulation of Integrated Master Plans for alltowns/Cities on GIS platform with digitized land records.
Timely implementation of Schemes and Programs without overtime and over costs. 
2 Integrated Master Planning

By Mr Michael Koh
Fellow 
Centre for Liveable Cities

Integrated system approach for long-term planning and importance of transparency and accountability in governance and planning process. 

Effective execution, flexibility and dynamism to change institution’s role.

Recognize current challenges and public consultation

Master Plan formulation and implementation is done professionally.
Seamless coordination among different Govt. Departments to implement and achieve the goals of Concept Plan and Master Plan of Singapore.
Strong implementation of vision, policies and programs by Singapore Govt.( e.g. limiting Cars on the roads, ERP, etc.)
Flexibility and regular monitoring of Master Plan through stress test/ carrying capacity test.
Green and Blue Planning approach to make cities more natural, beautiful and citizens’ centric.
Formulation of Master Plan as per carrying capacity test. 
Identifying Key drivers of the City and setting up of Vision/ Goal for the same.
Provide incentives to developers/ promoters for developing space, iconic towers, Green building or any other ‘out of box’ solution to enhances space quality and gives back some aesthetic/ environment value to the City.
Formulation of Plan/ strategy for developing urban centers in Metropolitan cities/ Region. This would optimize the resource mobilization and promote various sectoral infrastructural developments.
3 Briefing on the Singapore River Learning Journey 
By MrLoh Ah Tuan, CLC Panel of Expert 
Sharing experience of making Singapore River Pollution free and river front development.  Requirement of vision, political will and dedicated team of professional to execute the project on ground.
Public awareness to keep their river pollution free.
Vision to translate rivers, canals and other water bodies as a resource for urban renewal and rejuvenation through planning, designing and uses.
River side urban development as image/identity of city.
4 Urban Design Guidelines 

By Mr Michael Koh
Fellow 
Centre for Liveable Cities

Urban design intentions that are translated into guidelines for different planning areas 

Importance of UD guidelines to integrate with surrounding urban environmentand enhance characteristics of built environment.

Development of Singapore River Promenade/Marina Bay as water reservoir, recreational and commercial hub of the city. 

Development of High rise and iconic buildings to take away the pressure of growth from land thus shaping small compact city with sustainable livable environment.
No overhead cables for electricity supply or mobile towers on building tops make built environment safe and beautiful. 
Connectivity of continuous covered pedestrian pathways and networks on each and every road.
Guidelines for Night Lighting in Parks, High Rise Buildings, monuments etc.
Guidelines for Façade treatments, Road Signage, Advertisements etc. 

Promoting compact city by developing high rise buildings, Iconic Towers for efficient use of land and enhancing high quality of living and working environment. 
Promoting underground services of water, power, sanitation, drainage, telephone and other services for making city safe and visually appealing.
Depute ‘Coordinating Committees ‘while developing housing, industrial sector or any infrastructure project which deals with inter-government approvals and coordination matters.
Area development schemes for Urban Villages, Redevelopment and resettlement areas, heritage sites, down town areas, water bodies, parks and playground etc.
5 Integrated Learning Journey: 
River Cruise – Marina Bay & Singapore River

By Mr Michael Koh, Fellow, Centre for Liveable Cities

Field Visit - Clarke Quay 
Clarke Quay is a historical riverside quay in Singapore.
Development of built environment along the river to define the skyline of the city to form a prominent recreational area of the city..
Spatial distribution of commercial and public semi-public areas along the river front to make the project economically viable.
Making the river pollution free through public participation and generating O&M costs by through tourist/ recreational/ commercial activities.
6 Development Control 

By Ms Lim SweeKeng
Deputy Director (Advisory) 
Centre for Liveable Cities

Development control regulations for implementation of Master Plan provisions, optimizingland use. Case studies of different parts of Singapore which follow different development controls and form different building characters. 
Special norms for Signature Towers, iconic buildings. 
Different building heights for different areas - from lower (water front, historical sites,etc) to higher (CBD/city centre).
Identifying areas of development, redevelopment, conservation, heritage, special areas etc. based on their characters and defining different development controls in these areas.
Making Building Height Plan of a city for defining skyline, urban character and distribution of FAR.
7 Use of GIS in Land Use Planning 

By Ms Peng Ting 
Planner 
Urban Redevelopment Authority

Application of GIS as planning tool to aid landuse planning and processes, decision
and outcomes 
Creating GIS culture in a city where every land parcel, land records, Public & Social infrastructure, assets are mapped and registered.
Use of CCTV cameras, GIS & other technologies like e-planner, Urban system Dashboard, Digital 3D, Quantitative Urban Environment Simulation Tool (QUEST), 3D Transport modeling,etc. for monitoring of activities, vehicular movements, public infrastructure, etc.
Extensive use of GIS in Master Plan formulation and maintaining land records database etc. 
Creating real time data for different development activities in a city.
Digitization of Natural conservation Areas, Heritage zones, water bodies etc.
8 Transport and use of GIS in Transport Planning 
By MrMohinder Singh 
Advisor 
Land Transport Authority 
By Mr Jansen Lee 
Snr Principal Transport Planner 
Land Transport Authority
Sharing of Singapore's approach and guiding principles to achieve modal shift from private to public transportation. 
Traffic demand management and integrated land use 
Policy formulation to ensure self-sustainability in infrastructural projects 
Showcase/ case studies on current urban solutions and initiatives
80-90% people in Singapore live in HDB areas which are planned near to MRTS thus achieving the goal of modal shift from private to public transportation
Planning of LRT to provide access to MRTS within 400m from residential pocket
Creating Transport hubs near to residential areas.
Operation of public transport is based on Build and Operate (BO) system. MRTS, LRT, Buses etc. are planned and monitored by government but operation is done by private sector. 
Area Licensing Scheme restricts entry of vehicles in specific areas at specific time by differential pricing through Electronic Road Pricing.
Making GIS based integrated Transport Plan of the city.
Development of Public Transport Infrastructure and easy accessibility to Residential/ Commercial areas.
Seamless Integration of public transport modes such as MRTS, LRT and Bus in operation.
Identify the role of Private sector in public transport at various levels.
Effective use of GIS in route planning, network designing etc. 
9 Learning journey to Singapore City Gallery 
By Lim SweeKeng
Deputy Director(Advisory) 
Centre for Liveable Cities
URA City Gallery The City Gallery demonstrates evolution of Singapore Urban Planning in various phases in different periods.
The 3D model displays space configurations, building heights, spatial distribution of built environment. 
The gallery highlights the intellectual thoughts and proceedings of Singapore Planning fraternity. 
The planned city of India should have City Galleries to demonstrate evolution of, planning process of cities in different time periods from ancient to modern times. 
These Galleries give sense of ‘Pride of the City’ and belongings t of the city residents and professionals in planning and management of cities. 
10 Housing, Building and Construction 

By MrChionhChyeKye
CLC Panel of Expert

Sharing on Singapore’s approach and guiding principles to sustainable financing of public housing and managing growth aspirations 

Achieving the social goals of housing 0policies/programs, supporting families, managing diversity and building a sense of community 

Gaining insights on Singapore’s journey towards building and construction excellence, improving productivity of the construction sector

85% of population owns the HDB houses. HDB acts as financing institution and is also responsible for Asset Building and Real Estate Maintenance.
Central Provident Fund (CPF) collected universally from Public & Private sector and maintained by Singapore Govt. is the main resource to funding housing sector.
Effective role of HDB supplying affordable housing stock. 
Ethnic Integration Policy in housing allocation is a typical example. Social integration is achieved through mixture of population for different communities and segregation/concentration of same community is not allowed. 
CPF as a source of housing finance may be used for formulating Affordable Housing Projects. 

It will develop sense of belonging to the owners and housing as an industry will be promoted.

11 Land Acquisition and Resettlement  Singapore’s land acquisition policy as an instrumental in early urban redevelopment and current land management.  The Govt. does the compulsory Land Acquisition for public infrastructure and housing developments. The compensation is as per designated valued decided by the Govt. The benefits arising due to Master Plan implementation are not factored for compensation. 
The land valuation is done by professional evaluators to balance the land market, affordability index, Govt. propositions etc.
Singapore Govt. acquires the land and provide to HDB, LTA and other Govt. agencies on subsidized rates for development as per Concept/ Master Plan. 
Land Acquisition and compensation package as per clear cut Govt. policies without political interventions. 
12 Heritage and Conservation 

By Mr Michael Koh
Fellow 
Centre for Liveable Cities

Conservation of historical districts, unique buildings, etc. and their integration through re-adaptive use. Conservation of old built heritage and making them new heritage for future.
Creating Property Value and enhancing living environment by conserving potential areas.
Govt. brings creative schemes, initiatives and ‘out of box’ solutions to hat motivate residents/users to initiate actions for conservation. 
Conservation of old built heritage and making them new heritage for future.
Creating Property Value and enhancing living environment by conserving potential areas.
Govt. brings creative schemes, initiatives and ‘out of box’ solutions to hat motivate residents/users to initiate actions for conservation. 
13 Learning Journey to Toa Payoh town centre and Housing and Development Board (HDB) Show-flats 

By Mr Wong Kai Yeng, CLC Panel of Expert

Guided tour to Singapore’s first Integrated New Town, Toa Payoh
The Town was designed and planned based on integrated planning principles, and has public and private housing with a transport interchange, commercial centre, and public social facilities such as library and schools. 
Visit to HDB show-flats to see the different typologies of public housing units
Easy accessibility of Toa Payoh New Town through MRTS and Bus interchange. 
Very high density Residential Township. Upto 50 stories building were built for housing purposes. 
FAR was extensively used to make Compact Township.
Sector Layouts included areas for recreation, shopping and institutional activities. 
The sectors were pedestrian friendly, safe and having mixed land use.
Development of Residential pockets and other uses along transit corridor applicable in small and medium Indian cities.
14 Learning Journey to Pinnacle (Private Housing) The Pinnacle, Duxton is an award-winning 50-storey residential development, next to the business district. Towers are connected by sky gardens of 500m long, at 26th and 50th floor.  Optimized use of land by redevelopment and re-densification of high rise pvt. housing.
High quality of life and creating property value in and around Pinnacle Housing Society.
Sky decks and gardens are used for recreation and also for commercial activities/ functions. 
Compact Housing Schemes should be planned to enhance housing stock.
15 Sustainable Environment 

By MrLoh Ah Tuan, Panel of Expert 
CLC

Singapore's approach and guiding principles to sustainable environment 
Recognizing the trade-offs necessary in order to achieve both economic growth and environmental sustainability 
Effective policies and execution strategies for creation of systems and process to ensure environmental sustainability
Political will supported by public to create sustainable environment.
People understanding that ‘Littering is not worth’ makes city virtually very clean 
Solid Waste Management System is very efficient. Dust bins are available at every public place
Solid waste is incinerated and residue is used for land reclamation purposes. 
Use of Euro-VI standards in vehicles fuels.
Creating Public awareness in keeping environment clean.
Implementation of schemes in the rightmost spirit
Regular monitoring of schemes as per identified success indicators.
Creating Public Infrastructure like gardens, parks, walkways, etc.
Regular maintenance of created Public Infrastructure.
16 Water 
By Mr Yap Kheng Guan, Panel Expert CLC
Dynamic system of governance and strong leadership enabled Singapore to achieve water self-sufficiency 
Importance of integrated planning in allowing policy makers to optimize and prioritize developmental objectives, while resolving conflicts between competing objectives.
Techniques to harvest and manage Rainwater and waste water for reuse
Newaterand De-salinatingsea watertechniques to produce potable water.
Improving drainage in catchments areas 
Prohibitive use of ground water 
Making Water conservation a practice. Reuse of water shall be optimized.
Rain water harvesting by creating catchment areas in open and green spaces, drains and water bodies.
Underground water extraction shall be limited. 
All the water bodies should be GIS mapped, classified and protected.
Reuse of waste water should be optimized. 
Encroachments over the drains, ponds and other water bodies should be removed with strict punitive actions.
17 Greening and Biodiversity Conservation 

By Mr Chua Hock Seng, Associate DirectorCentre for Urban Greenery and Ecology (CUGE)

Singapore's approach and guiding principles to having a long-term mission that requires public, private and people sectors to work together to achieve greenery and conservation.
Importance of adaptive governance to enable evolution of the government’s long term vision with the changing social, environmental and economic landscapes 
Approach to integrated policy objectives of different agencies and also engaging community participation and ownership
Singapore takes pride in being a ‘City in a Garden’ rather a Garden City.
Master Plan for Parks and open spaces.
Park Connector Networks
Providing each tree a unique identity no. and its GIS location for monitoring and doing ‘Tree Risk Assessment’ and other analysis.
Creating ‘Tree Banks’
Giving incentives and motivation to make roof top gardens, sky terraces, vertical gardens, etc. 
Promoting Greens as ‘Landuse Marketing Strategy’ 
Use of local flowering plants/shrubs/trees for streetscape, retaining walls, public infrastructure like bridges, barrages etc. for city beautification. 
Conservation of Building types, heritage sites, redevelopment areas, Natural drains/ ponds/ water bodies, Urban Villages etc. through Central & State funded redevelopment schemes and projects 
Involving/ motivating people to make green environment/ buildings by giving additional FAR etc.
Overall surveillance of city infrastructure including Green areas through CCTV cameras, 
Capacity building – Children shall be educated in schools for Civic responsibilities while using urban infrastructure. 
Using professionals like landscape engineers, architects, horticulture departments for making urban environment green and beautiful.
Promoting Tree Banks in cities, urban Farming, Terrace Gardening, Sky walks, etc.
18 Learning Journey: 
Marina Barrage 

By PUB 
Singapore’s Water Agency

The Marina Barrage is a dam in Singapore built at the confluence of five rivers, across the Marina Channel between Marina East and Marina South. Opened on 2008, Marina Barrage is Singapore's 15th reservoir. The barrage not only provides water for storage, controls flood, and keeps check on mixing of potable water from sea water but also very provides space for recreation and city view.
The viewing gallery in barrage not only gives information about the technical details but also educates people to conserve water through different techniques.
The construction of Mega infrastructure such as barrage consume large space therefore it should go beyond engineering component. It should add some identity/ aesthetic value to the city and educate peopleto use it as multipurpose sites. 
These spaces can alternatively be used for public recreation or revenue generation by adding more functions and activities.
A feasible study at central and state level should be done to identify such infrastructure projects which can be opened for public access and revenue generation purposes. 
19 Financing a City 

MrDileep Nair 
Singapore’s High Commissioner to Ghana 
Former Managing Director, DBS

Understating of Broader principles that Singapore has consistently adhered to in financing infrastructure development 
Application of financing principles and how they have evolved are illustrated through examples drawn from three different sectors – transport, public housing and water pricing.
Developing sustainable economic environment
Cost recovery in public infrastructure investments 
Co-payments by the users/ residents to use public infrastructure. 
Space creation techniques
Land intensification
Optimum revenue collection from the public for the Infrastructure provided by Govt. is a necessity. It brings in feeling of ownership and responsibility to the users. Further, it also strengthens the quality control and sustains the life cycle of the project. 
Govt. should induce more financial planners/ evaluators etc. in spatial Planning for project costing and regular financial monitoring/ infrastructure audit etc. 
20 Industrial Infrastructure 

By Mr Lim Chin Chong

Singapore's approach and guiding principles to economic development 
Industrialization, changing economic strategies and supporting industrial infrastructure; identifying the strong synergies between industrial and land-use policies 
Dynamics between Singapore’s economic and industrial infrastructure institutions 
Current challenges and future directions
Identifying industries which comply as per Singapore Concept Plan
Spatial location of industries
Development controls to develop industrial estates.
Govts. role and policies in providing land and infrastructure to the industrial sector.
Pollution control norms 
Designing of industrial corridor by developing adequate and world class infrastructure by linking potential sites across inter-State boundaries. 
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